নিউজটি শেয়ার করুন
Shahabudding khaled chowdhury (২০১৮-০১-২৮ ০৬:২৩:৩১)
In a conference on foreign affairs held in New-Delhi on 22nd May 1949, the first prime-minister of newly emerged Independent India, Mr. Nehru said, “We wish to have the closest contacts because we do from the beginning firmly believe in the world coming closer together and ultimately realigning the ideal of what is now, being called one world. But India, we are convinced, can help is that process far more by taking an individual stand and acting according to her own wishes. “Whenever any crisis arises, then by merging herself with others and getting tied up in hard and first rule.” Three years already passed since Mr. Narendra Modi was elected as the prime minister of India with over whelming majority in the Parliament. Since the assumption of office even his ardent critic must admit, he devoted all his time and energy for implementing all the plans he and his party think best for the country. So, far as foreign policy is concerned he adopted the principle of strategic partnership in place of non-aligned foreign policy of Mr. Nehru. New strategic partnership consists of Washington, Telaviv and New-Delhi, under Modi’s leadership the present foreign policy of India is pursued according to above principle. Mr. Nehru one of the founding fathers of Indian independence and one of the initiators of non-aligned foreign policy which was accepted by almost all the important developing a countries of the world like Indonesia, Egypt, Algeria, India and many other’s firmly believed, only absolute unity among the developing and underdeveloped countries can secure world peace.70 years ago, a conference of Asian countries was held in New-Delhi known as A.R.C. (Asian relation conference). It was held in the month of March 1947 presided over by Nehru himself, that was attended by majority Asian countries. Nehru said, in his presidential address “India did not have design on any country and that Indian’s great design was that of peace and progress all over the world.”
Again 1955 Bandung conference was organized, India under the leadership of Nehru, played an active role. Actually in that conference non-alignment movement of the developing counties all over the world took concrete shape. Besides India, 28 countries including China, Egypt, Indonesia and Iraq joined the conference and took active part. They launched a movement against poverty hunger, injustice and colonialism. They also declared, they will not take part in the on-going hostility and cold war between Soviet Union and United States and will remain neutral under any circumstances. Since Bandung conference, India continued its non-aligned foreign policy almost for 40 years.
For two decades 1950s and 1960s, United States criticized Indian non-aligned foreign policy as animosity. John Foster Dulles, foreign secretary to the then. American president Eisenhower, always branded non-aligned policy as an evil. At that time India played a very strong role in favor of colonial countries. The historical role played by India for independence of colonial states of South Africa still remembered with honor. Thus India achieved a dignified place in the comity of nations through the world. At that time India’s voice was always the voice of the oppressed through the world. The tremendous role played by India for the independence of Palestine both inside and out-side United Nations will be written in golden letters in the world history for the generations to come.
The unfortunate war between India and china of 1962 compelled Nehru to take military help from the western countries including America and Britain. But still Nehru was committed to the non-aligned foreign policy. Because he took it as a principle. On 4th December 1962 he wrote a letter to Bertrand Russell, the world famous philosopher, “So far as we are concerned, we hope to adhere to the policy of non-alignment although I confess that taking military help from other countries does somewhat affect it but in the circumstances, we have no choice.” However India followed non-alignment foreign policy for long 40 years.
During the prime minister ship of Naroshima Rao, a congress prime minister at the beginning of in 1990s, the deviations from non-alignment policy started. Socialist countries also started to fall at that time. The mandarins of Indian foreign policy took full advantage to deviate from non-aligned foreign policy. They took initiative to make India one of the powerful states and started to develop relations with western countries, especially with the united states of American. According to their views china’s rise was to a large extent because of its rapprochement with the west after Deng Xia Ping took the reins of power. Of course it is correct the close relations with U.S. helped China to emerge as an economic power. Chinese foreign policy mandarins were intelligent enough to use the rivalry between Moscow and Washington to take maximum advantage. But China never compromised its strategic position by signing defense or any other military agreements with Washington and never allowed Washington use its military bases by The U.S military. Even no military agreement was signed between two countries. Any expert in foreign affairs is to admit, china was more benefitted out of sino-american relation. The then chief adviser of President Nixon, a world renowned diplomat, Mr. Henry Kissinger in his book “White house years” wrote very vividly how Chinese were benefitted by new relations with America.
In 1990s, for a short period L.K. Gujral and Devgaura became prime-ministers of India for short period, both of them tried to back to non-aligned foreign policy but miserably failed.
For the first time Mr. Brajesh Mishra, advisor on foreign policy of the former prime-minister of India, Mr. Vajpayee, gave his consent on prime-minister’s behalf, to the Washington, Telaviv and Delhi axis in a discussion held in Washington. Now during Modi’s time it has taken a final shape. At present India’s most trusted partners are Washington and Telaviv and now-a-days Washington and Telaviv are the biggest supplier of arms to India not soviet Russia. Of course it was the congress government that laid the foundation for cordial relation & with Israel and America.
In 1998 it was congress Govt that laid the foundation for cordial relations with Israel and America. In that year Man- Mohan Singh govt. signed the nuclear deal with Washington. He also signed defense agreement with Washington with an aim of bringing military of India and America more closely. The defense agreement was extended for another 10 years in 2015.
India, for the first time, signed another agreement with America known as logistics exchange memorandum of agreement (LEMOA) according to the agreement India agreed to allow U.S. to use Indian ports and military bases. According to the congress this agreement is a fundamental departure from Indian’s basic policy of “Strategic Military Neutrality”. The communist party of India criticized it vehemently and opined that it is a surrender of the strategic autonomy. Prime-Minister Modi seems to be ready to go to any extent for increasing friendship with America. The goal of Obama administration and present U.S. Administration under Trump is almost same. American administration wants to build up a military and political alliance against China in the region along with Japan and India as the bulwarks. The Modi government supported the position of America on the South China Sea and has also participated in the joint naval exercises with the U.S. and Japanese Navies. India and America are sharing intelligence on Chinese ships.
Immediately after independence, India was one of the first countries to vote against the U.N. Resolution that divided Palestine into two states. It happened because Mahatma Gandhi, father of Indian independence was strictly against Israeli occupation of Palestinian land. He once said,“Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the British.” But those days are gone. India under Modi’s leadership does not bother about its history with colonialism anymore. As saying goes in the top level of American administration that “the key to white house” lies in Israel.
As in recent times, Russian and Chinese ties have deepened to counter U.S. hegemony. Under the circumstance Modi has no other alternative but to take all sorts of measures to improve friendly and strategic relations with the United States of America and a historical visit to Israel. Now India is the biggest foreign arms market for Israel. Israel sells weapon worth more than u$ 1 billion every year to India. 41 % of all Israeli arms exports between 2012 and 2016 were bought by India.
Prime Minister Modi played to deepen the relationship between India and U.S. during his first visit to America after Mr. Trump took over presidency. The U.S. President also promised to strength global strategic partnership with India.
Presently constant nuclear threat by North Korea compelled Mr. Trump to shift administration’s focus to North Korea. So, American administration is giving more attention to Beijing than to Delhi. Because none other than China can play a pivotal role to safe guards the prestige of United States of America from the ugly situation created by North Korea.