Since the inception of the world, in every century a country emerges in the world with sufficient power, serious will, energy and intellectual ability to reform the existing world system according to its own values. Naturally for the existing Global Super Power it is painful to adjust with its declining position. France under the leadership of Cardinal Richelieu introduced the modern approach to international relations which was based on nation-state with national interest as its ultimate goals.
In the eighteenth century Great Britain became more powerful and took the leadership and introduced the concept of balance of power in the international relations and dominated diplomacy of international relations for next 200 years. Austria under the leadership of Metternich reconstructed the concept of Europe and Germany’s Bismarck totally dismantled it. Bismarck turned European diplomacy into a cold –blood game of power politics.
Lastly, America entered arena of world politics in 1917. As Second World War was going on, it became apparently clear that Great Britain’s ambition for maintaining a balance of power in Europe was moving out of reach and after un-conditional surrender of Germany; the Soviet Union emerged as the dominant power after the surrender of Germany. If the United States withdraw its forces from Europe, the Soviet Union would emerge as the dominant nation on the European Continent. Therefore, for Mr. Churchill, the then British Prime Minister no other aspect of diplomacy was more necessary than creating bonds of friendship with America Solidly so that Great Britain would not need to face the world after war alone, of course in doing so Churchill was also able to Convince America that its strategic interests are also closely connected with those of London.
It is quite surprising that the major international Agreements of Twentieth Century have been embodiment of American values from League of Nation’s to United Nations Charter. At the end of 2nd world war in 1945, 35% world’s total economic production was American. In 1961 president Kennedy declared that America was strong enough to pay any price, bear any burden to ensure the success of liberty. But unfortunately three decades later United States was not in a position to realize all its desires.
From the beginning of world civilization existing global super power always thought it painful to admit their decline and face the challenges of presently rising super power. United States of America now finds itself in the same situation as far as China is concerned.
After a long secret diplomatic parleys between United States of America and China, the then president of America Mr. Richard Nixon finally visited China in the year 1972; Sino-Soviet split started during the early 1960s. Soviet Union, China’s ideological mentor and economic benefactor in Moscow became threatening adversaries. Soviet troops massed along China’s Northern border; Soviets missiles targeted on its Cities. China choose survival instead of ideology by making friendship with United States during the President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972.
China suffered a lot. In 1930s China faced a brutal and inhuman Japanese aggressive military invasion and occupation in which, according to Chinese govt. version 22 million people died after world war II; more than 5 million people died in another Civil war. In the consolidation of the new Communist regime following the victory of Mao Tse Tung’s forces over Chiag Kai Shek’s in 1949. Twenty seven million people starved to death, during the industrialization drive and forced collectivization of late 1950s. Yet one of the miracles is that China which endued the worst scourges of the twentieth century is destined to be one of the world’s leading power in the twenty first century.
One hundred and ninety three years ago Napoleon said of China `there lies a sleeping giant, let him sleep! For when he awake he will move the world.” Now the giant is awake and the United Sates and other adversaries have nothing to do, History will take its own course..
Presently policy makers of U.S should learn much studying the actions of the Dutch Republic and great Britain when they were global super powers. History suggest global super power should aim for a soft landing and it should have a good relations with its successor, so that it still has a comfortable place in the world once its dominance fades away. More than a century later, imperial Britain eventually adopted a similar strategy of co-operation with America. As a result, the US becomes Britain’s staunchest geo-political ally of the twentieth century.
Now U.S. policy makers could learn by studying they actions of Dutch republic and Great Britain, when they were global hyper power seeking a soft landing. But since accepting office of the president of the United States of America in January, 2017, President Donald Trump created doubt about his clear understanding of the prevailing political phenomenon. For example, Trump withdraws America from the proposed Trans pacific partnership trade deal. He continues to make random and incoherent demands such as immediate eliminating the bi-lateral U.S- China trade deficit.
Instead of carefully playing the long game with regard to China, Trump seems to be panicking, president Nixon who was the first American President to visit China on a State Visit wrote in his book ‘Victory without War’ in the long run Sino- US Relationship will endure not because of fear but because of hope. Nothing will come between us so long neither side harbors territorial; ambitions against other; we have everything to gain.’